Categories: all aviation Building a Biplane bicycle gadgets misc motorcycle theater

**Building a Biplane: In Which Mistakes are Made**

I've been warned repeatedly that I was going to make a bunch of parts, then realize I'd have to completely re-make them due to some small error or flaw I built in without realizing it. So, in a way, I'm better off than I could have been.

Having now completed all 36 drag strips (why 36 when I needed 32? Let's charitably say I was building in my 10% extra and not just mis-remembering), I finally sat down to figure out what was the deal with these drag wires everyone else uses. Good timing, right?

So, I worked out the math. The drag strips are .063" thick and 1/2" wide. The total length of drag strip material is 916", if you add all the plans-specified lengths together. Add another 32" for the 1" doublers that go on the flat end of each strip, another 16" for the 1/2" of length after the flat-end hole, and another 51.2" for the 1.6" length each strip is folded over. This amounts to 1015.2" of strip length. With a cross-section of .0315 square inches, this adds up to about 31.98 cubic inches of 4130. It takes about 3.6 cubic inches of 4130 to make a pound, so the final weight of all this metal is:

**8.88 pounds**

4130 steel has an annealed yield strength (the strength at which deformations like stretch or bend become a permanent part of the metal) of 52,200 PSI. So one square inch of 4130 will lift 52,200 lbs before it will yield. .0315 square inches of 4130 will lift 1644 lbs if the metal is in the annealed heat-treat condition. This annealed condition is important because it's the weakest state of the metal, and after welding, you can't count on the heat treatment state of the metal around the weld. For normalized 4130, the yield strength is 63,100 PSI.

The turnbuckles, at .06 lbs each, add another 1.92 lbs of weight. We will ignore the weight of the pins, since the alternative wire construction will also use pins (though they'll be shorter, and so will contribute to any weight savings). The turnbuckles are rated for 1600 lbs as their "strength" (I'm not sure if that's working load or yield load or breaking load, but I'll guess it's either yield or working load), so they match nicely with the 1644 lb strength of the drag strips.

Total weight is now: **10.8 pounds** for the drag strips. Not
bad.

This is where things got real for me. I checked, and realized that
although a 3/16" wire has a smaller cross-section than a drag strip
(.0276 in^{2} instead of .0315 in^{2}), the wires are
guaranteed to be *normalized*. You don't have to weld them, so
you don't mess up the heat treatment. This means you get to use the
higher 63,100 PSI number, and a 3/16" 4130 wire has a yield strength of
1741 lbs. So... it's stronger *and* weighs less? What's the
downside?

There really isn't one. The wires by themselves weigh 8.12 lbs
(916" length plus 144" to account for the now-missing turnbuckles, for
a total length of 1060"; making 29.26 in^{3} of steel). You
have to add AN665-21 clevis fork rod ends and locknuts, which add up to
1.16 lbs for a total weight of:

**9.28 lbs** for drag wires.

Hmm. Compared to 10.8, 9.28 sounds pretty good. Saving a pound and a half is nothing to sneeze at -- I've heard tales of people substituting titanium fasteners on a plane for a total savings of less than a pound, at the expense of several thousand dollars. Here, I can do it by returning a thousand dollars worth of turnbuckles and buying $800 worth of rod ends and $200 worth of steel rod. So, I spend the exact same amount of money and save 1.5 lbs? Sign me up!

Now, it would have been really awesome if I'd figured all this out
*before* spending a bunch of hours making drag strips. So, if you're
building a Charger, this is my gift to you. Go figure out drag wires
rather than wasting a bunch of time on heavier strips. Fortunately, I
had a good time with making the strips, and I don't consider it time
wasted. I got to meet a local Charger owner to have the strips cut,
and learned about fabricating an interesting part. And now I get to
play with threading a bunch of 4130 rod and RMA-ing a small army of
turnbuckles.

Posted at 21:44
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Categories: all aviation Building a Biplane bicycle gadgets misc motorcycle theater